Aly, A., Macdonald, S., Jarvis, L. & Chen, T. (2016) Violent Extremism Online: New Perspectives on Terrorism and the Internet (Abingdon: Routledge) https://www.routledge.com/products/9781138912298
Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2015) Terrorism Online: Politics, Law and Technology (Abingdon: Routledge) http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415732888/
Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2014) Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment and Response (New York: Springer) http://www.springer.com/computer/information+systems+and+applications/book/978-1-4939-0961-2
Conway, M., Jarvis, L., Lehane, O., Macdonald, S. & Nouri, L. (2017) Terrorists’ Use of the Internet: Assessment and Response (UK: IOS Press).
Macdonald, S. (2016) ‘Terrorist Narratives & Communicative Devices: Findings from a Study of Online Terrorist Magazines’ in Zeiger, S. (ed) Expanding Research on Countering Violent Extremism (Abu Dhabi: Hedayah) http://www.hedayahcenter.org/Admin/Content/File-410201685227.pdf
Macdonald, S. (2015) ‘Assessing and Responding to the Cyberterrorism Threat’ in Ogun, M. N. (ed) Terrorist Use of Cyberspace and Cyber Terrorism: New Challenges and Responses (Amsterdam: iOS Press) http://ebooks.iospress.nl/volume/terrorist-use-of-cyberspace-and-cyber-terrorism-new-challenges-and-responses
Mair, D. (2015) ‘Conforming to al Qaeda’s Single Narrative – An Analysis of al Shabaab’s Tweets During the Westgate Terrorist Attack’ in Ogun, M. N. (ed) Terrorist Use of Cyberspace and Cyber Terrorism: New Challenges and Responses (Amsterdam: iOS Press) http://ebooks.iospress.nl/volume/terrorist-use-of-cyberspace-and-cyber-terrorism-new-challenges-and-responses
Macdonald, S. (2015) ‘Dataveillance and Terrorism: Swamps, Haystacks and the Eye of Providence’ in Lennon, G. & Walker, C. (eds) Routledge Handbook of Law and Terrorism (Abingdon: Routledge) https://www.routledge.com/Routledge-Handbook-of-Law-and-Terrorism/Lennon-Walker/p/book/9780415870375
Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (2015) ‘Cyberterrorism’ in Clubb, G., Kennedy-Pipe, C. & Mabon, S. (eds) Terrorism and Political Violence: The Evolution of Contemporary Insecurity (London: Sage) https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/terrorism-and-political-violence/book241027#tabview=title
Macdonald, S. (2015) ‘Cyberterrorism and Enemy Criminal Law’ in Ohlin, J.D., Finkelstein, C. & Govern, K. (eds) Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts (Oxford: Oxford University Press) https://global.oup.com/academic/product/cyber-war-9780198717508?cc=gb&lang=en&
Macdonald, S. & Mair, D. (2015) ‘Terrorism Online: A New Strategic Environment’ in Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2015) Terrorism Online: Politics, Law and Technology (Abingdon: Routledge) http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415732888/
Macdonald, S. (2014) ‘Prosecuting Suspected Terrorists: Precursor Crimes, Intercept Evidence and the Priority of Security’ in Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (eds) Critical Perspectives on Counter-Terrorism (Abingdon: Routledge) http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415855471/
Jarvis, L., Nouri, L. & Whiting, A. (2014) ‘Understanding, Locating and Constructing Cyberterrorism’, in Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2014) Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment and Response (New York: Springer) http://www.springer.com/computer/information+systems+and+applications/book/978-1-4939-0961-2
Lord Carlile QC & Macdonald, S. (2014) ‘The Criminalisation of Terrorists’ Online Preparatory Acts’ in Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2014) Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment and Response (New York: Springer) http://www.springer.com/computer/information+systems+and+applications/book/978-1-4939-0961-2
Jarvis, L., Nouri, M. and Whiting, A. (2014) ‘Terrorism, Violence and Conflict in the Digital Age: Implications, Opportunities and Challenges’, in I. Tellidis and H. Toros (eds.) Researching Terrorism, Peace and Conflict Studies (Abingdon: Routledge) http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9781138018174/
Nouri, L. & Whiting, A. (2014) ‘Prevent and the Internet: Examining the Impact of the Prevent Strategy on Preventative Counter-Terrorism Online’, in C. Baker-Beall, C. Heath-Kelly & L. Jarvis (eds.) Counter-Radicalisation in Europe. Abingdon: Routledge.
Aly, A. (2017). Brothers, Believers, Brave Mujahideen: Focusing attention on the audience of violent jihadist preachers. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(1), 62-76.
Conway, M. (2016). Determining the Role of the Internet in Violent Extremism and Terrorism: Six Suggestions for Progressing Research. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 25.
Gendron, A. (2017). The Call to Jihad: Charismatic Preachers and the Internet. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(1), 44-61.
Jarvis, L., Macdonald, S and Whiting, A. (2017) ‘Unpacking cyberterrorism discourse: specificity, status and scale in news media constructions of threat’ European Journal of International Security, 2(1), 64-87 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/eis.2016.14
Jarvis, L., Macdonald, S and Whiting, A. (2016) ‘Analogy and authority in cyberterrorism discourse: an analysis of global news media coverage’, Global Society, 30(4), 605-623 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13600826.2016.1158699
Macdonald, S. & Jarvis, L. (2015) ‘Responding to Cyberterrorism: Options and Avenues’, Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Summer (Cyber V), 134-143 http://journal.georgetown.edu/cyber-v/
Macdonald, S., Jarvis, L. & Nouri, L. (2015) ‘State Cyberterrorism: A Contradiction in Terms?’ Journal of Terrorism Research, 6(3), 62-75 doi:10.15664/jtr.1162
Macdonald, S., Jarvis, L. & Whiting, A. (2015) ‘Constructing Cyberterrorism as a Security Threat: a Study of International News Media Coverage’ Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(1), 60-75 http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/402
Mair, D. (2017) #Westgate: A Case Study: How Al-Shabaab used Twitter during an on-going attack. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 40(1), pp24-42 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2016.1157404
Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (2014) ‘What is Cyberterrorism? Findings from a Survey of Researchers’ Terrorism and Political Violence 37(1): 68-90 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09546553.2013.847827
Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (2014) ‘Locating Cyberterrorism: How Terrorism Researchers Use and View the Cyber Lexicon’ Perspectives on Terrorism 8(2): 52-65 http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/337
Jarvis, L., Macdonald, S. & Nouri, L. (2014) ‘The Cyberterrorism Threat: Findings from a Survey of Researchers’ Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(1), 68-90 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1057610X.2014.853603#.U6b_tvldU6w
Rudner, M. (2013) ‘Cyber-Threats to Critical National Infrastructure: An Intelligence Challenge,’ International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 26(3), 453-481 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08850607.2013.780552#.U6b_R_ldU6w
Rudner, M. (2017). “Electronic Jihad”: The Internet as Al Qaeda’s Catalyst for Global Terror. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(1), 10-23.
In 2012 members of the Cyberterrorism Project conducted a survey of researchers on cyberterrorism. A total of 118 responses were received, from researchers working in 24 countries across six continents. The findings were published in a report and series of four journal articles, listed below, examining understandings of cyberterrorism, assessments of the threat it poses, whether it can be perpetrated by states and the wider cyber lexicon. Members of the project team also presented the findings to numerous non-academic stakeholders, including NATO COE-DAT, UNICRI, and the European Defence Agency.
In 2017 we ran the survey again – “five years on” – to investigate how opinions had changed (if at all): 12 questions remained the same as the 2012 survey; two questions were reformulated; and four new questions were posed.
A total of 120 complete responses and four partial responses were received, from researchers working in 30 countries across five continents. This report summarizes our initial findings.
This report contains findings from a study that investigated extreme far right groups’ usages of social media. This was a collaborative project building on an existing partnership between the Departments of Linguistics and Criminology at Swansea University, and on the development of a new partnership with the social media analytics company ‘Blurrt’. The project was funded by the CHERISH-DE multidisciplinary research centre at Swansea University and the School of Arts & Humanities at Edith Cowan University.
This report provides an overview of the aims, methodology and key findings of this project. The project was conducted between January and August 2017. It drew upon data from two social media platforms (Facebook and Twitter), collected over a 10-week period (January-April 2017), and concerned two extreme far right groups: Britain First and Reclaim Australia.
This report contains findings from the Advanced Research Workshop supported by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme on terrorists’ use of the Internet, held at Dublin City University on 27th-29th June 2016. The event was co-organised by the Cyberterrorism Project and the VOX-POL Network of Excellence. The workshop consisted of a total of 31 presentations, followed by a roundtable discussion during which participants formulated a set of recommendations. 60 delegates attended the symposium, from 13 different countries, including researchers and representatives from NATO HQ, NATO CCD-COE, UNICRI, the European Defence Agency, the Bavarian Police Academy and the Italian Carabinieri.
This report provides summaries of each of the presentations and presents the workshop’s final recommendations.
The Cyberterrorism Project hosted a symposium in Swansea on Wednesday 4th November 2015 with presentations given by Project interns who have recently conducted primary research into online terrorist magazine at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. The preliminary findings of this research project are available in this report.
The Cyber Terrorism Project at Swansea University hosted a two day symposium from the 5th June – 6th June 2014, entitled ‘Terrorists’ Use of the Internet’, that saw a range of different experts from across the globe present papers on various different aspects of terrorism online. Reflecting the international and multi-disciplinary nature of the project speakers came from the UK, Europe, Canada, and Australia and representing a range of different academic backgrounds as well as public bodies, industry and the intelligence community.
A summary of each paper presented at the conference along with our findings is available in the conference report. In addition to this there is a one page executive summary which summarises the conference findings.
This report provides an overview of findings from a research project exploring how mainstream media represent cyberterrorism. This report explores news content produced by 31 news outlets between 1 January 2008 and 8 June 2013. These dates were selected because they cover a significant period of time (over five years), during which a number of key events occurred including: the cyberattacks on Georgia, the Stuxnet revelations, and the release of the UK’s Cyber Security Strategy. Items were added to our corpus using a keyword search for the terms “cyber terrorism”, “cyberterrorism” and “cyber terror”, with a total of 535 items identified for coding and analysis.
To read the full report click here.
The Cyberterrorism Project hosted a multidisciplinary conference on cyberterrorism at Jury’s Inn Hotel, Birmingham, UK on 11-12 April 2013. Forty-eight delegates attended the conference, including researchers from a number of UK universities as well as institutions in the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Greece, Australia and the United States. Other attendees included representatives from Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabularies and the Welsh Government.
Subsequent to the conference the project teams has published the following report which presents an overview of each of the papers presented during the conference, and draws out some of the key findings.
The final report can be found here.
A one page executive summary can be found here.
A multidisciplinary team of researchers at Swansea University have completed a global survey of expert opinion on cyberterrorism. The survey focused on the concept, significance and appropriate responses to cyberterrorism, as well as exploring researcher views on the current state of academic knowledge on this prominent security issue. The survey drew a total of 118 responses from academics and other researchers working in 24 countries across six continents.
To read the full report click here
Table of Questionnaire Respondents
|Prof. Jeffrey F. Addicott, St Mary’s University|
|Dr. Fahed Al-Sumait, Gulf University of Science and Technology|
|Dr. Anne Aly, Curtin University|
|Edwin Bakker, Universiteit Leiden, Campus the Hague|
|Prof. Sanjay Bapna, Morgan State University|
|Dr. David Barnard-Wills, Trilateral Research|
|Dr. Igor Bernik, University of Maribor|
|Jessie Blackbourn, The University of New South Wales|
|Dr. Lorraine Bowman-Grieve, University of Lincoln|
|Dr. Alia Brahimi, London School of Economics|
|Dr. Oldrich Bures, Metropolitan University, Prague|
|Dr. Madeline Carr, Aberystwyth University|
|Dr. Jennifer Varriale Carson, University of Central Missouri|
|Gordon Clubb, University of Leeds|
|Dr. Maura Conway, Dublin City University|
|Dr. Erik J. Dahl, Naval Postgraduate School, CA|
|Dr. Dorothy Denning, Naval Postgraduate School|
|Prof. Priya Dixit, Virginia Tech; American University, Washington DC|
|Dr. Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zurich|
|James Fitzgerald, Dublin City University|
|Prof. Shawn Teresa Flanigan, San Diego State University|
|Nadina Foggetti, University of Bari|
|Dr. James J. F. Forest, University of Massachusetts, Lowell|
|Prof. Giampiero Giacomello, Universita di Bologna|
|Dr. Charlotte Heath-Kelly, Aberystwyth University|
|Lewis Herrington, University of Warwick|
|Annette Hübschle-Finch, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies|
|Lawrence A. Husick, Center for the Study of Terrorism|
|Musa Khan Jalalzai, Author|
|Dr. Christian Kaunert, University of Salford|
|Prof. Jeremy Keenan, University of London|
|Prof. Isaac Kfir, Syracuse University|
|Dr. Åshild Kolås, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)|
|Prof. Margaret E. Kosal, Georgia Institute of Technology|
|Dr. George K. Kostopoulos, University of Maryland University College|
|Prof. Adam Lankford, University of Alabama|
|Dr. Peter Lehr, University of St Andrews|
|Chamila Liyanage, University of London|
|Prof. James M. Lutz, Indiana University, Purdue University Fort Wayne|
|Dr. Gus Martin, California State University, Dominguez Hills|
|Dr. Mark R. McCoy, University of Central Oklahoma|
|Prof. Richard M. Medina, George Mason University|
|Dr. John F. Morrison, University of East London|
|Prof. Doug Munroe, Quest University|
|Dr. Andrew W. Neal, University of Edinburgh|
|Dr. Nihat Ali Özcan, Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey|
|Raffaello Pantucci, The International Centre For The Study Of Radicalisation And Political Violence|
|Dr. Swati Parashar, University of Wollongong|
|Kaja Prislan, University of Maribor|
|Ami-Jacques Rapin, Université de Lausanne|
|Dr. Anthony Richards, University of East London|
|Dr. Karthika Sasikumar, San José State University|
|Prof. Mark Sedgwick, Aarhus University|
|Prof. Jeffrey Sluka, Massey University|
|Dr. Anne Speckhard, Georgetown University|
|Dr. Brian H. Spitzberg, San Diego State University|
|Paul Stott, University of East Anglia|
|Dr. Ioannis Tellidis, Kyung Hee University|
|David Vaile, University of New South Wales|
|James R. Van De Velde, Author|
|Teun van Dongen, The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies|
|Dr. Alex A. Wilner, Center for Security Studies, ETH Zurich|
|Carl Anthony Wege, College of Coastal Georgia|
|Prof. Robert W. White, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis|
|Dr. Clay Wilson, University of Maryland University College|
|Kiyana Zolfaghar, University of Washington, Tacoma|
An additional 52 respondents chose not to be identified.