Books                                                  Book Chapters                                                    Journal Articles                                               Reports



Aly, A., Macdonald, S., Jarvis, L. & Chen, T. (2016) Violent Extremism Online: New Perspectives on Terrorism and the Internet (Abingdon: Routledge) 


Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2015) Terrorism Online: Politics, Law and Technology (Abingdon: Routledge)


Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2014) Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment and Response (New York: Springer)


Conway, M., Jarvis, L., Lehane, O., Macdonald, S. & Nouri, L. (2017) Terrorists’ Use of the Internet: Assessment and Response (UK: IOS Press).


Book Chapters

Macdonald, S. (2016) ‘Terrorist Narratives & Communicative Devices: Findings from a Study of Online Terrorist Magazines’ in Zeiger, S. (ed) Expanding Research on Countering Violent Extremism (Abu Dhabi: Hedayah)


Macdonald, S. (2015) ‘Assessing and Responding to the Cyberterrorism Threat’ in Ogun, M. N. (ed) Terrorist Use of Cyberspace and Cyber Terrorism: New Challenges and Responses (Amsterdam: iOS Press)


Mair, D. (2015) ‘Conforming to al Qaeda’s Single Narrative – An Analysis of al Shabaab’s Tweets During the Westgate Terrorist Attack’ in Ogun, M. N. (ed) Terrorist Use of Cyberspace and Cyber Terrorism: New Challenges and Responses (Amsterdam: iOS Press)


Macdonald, S. (2015) ‘Dataveillance and Terrorism: Swamps, Haystacks and the Eye of Providence’ in Lennon, G. & Walker, C. (eds) Routledge Handbook of Law and Terrorism (Abingdon: Routledge)


Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (2015) ‘Cyberterrorism’ in Clubb, G., Kennedy-Pipe, C. & Mabon, S. (eds) Terrorism and Political Violence: The Evolution of Contemporary Insecurity (London: Sage) 


Macdonald, S. (2015) ‘Cyberterrorism and Enemy Criminal Law’ in Ohlin, J.D., Finkelstein, C. & Govern, K. (eds) Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts (Oxford: Oxford University Press)


Macdonald, S. & Mair, D. (2015) ‘Terrorism Online: A New Strategic Environment’ in Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2015) Terrorism Online: Politics, Law and Technology (Abingdon: Routledge)


Macdonald, S. (2014) ‘Prosecuting Suspected Terrorists: Precursor Crimes, Intercept Evidence and the Priority of Security’ in Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (eds) Critical Perspectives on Counter-Terrorism (Abingdon: Routledge)


Jarvis, L., Nouri, L. & Whiting, A. (2014) ‘Understanding, Locating and Constructing Cyberterrorism’, in Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2014) Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment and Response (New York: Springer)


Lord Carlile QC & Macdonald, S. (2014) ‘The Criminalisation of Terrorists’ Online Preparatory Acts’ in Chen, T., Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds) (2014) Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment and Response (New York: Springer)


Jarvis, L., Nouri, M. and Whiting, A. (2014) ‘Terrorism, Violence and Conflict in the Digital Age: Implications, Opportunities and Challenges’, in I. Tellidis and H. Toros (eds.) Researching Terrorism, Peace and Conflict Studies (Abingdon: Routledge)


Nouri, L. & Whiting, A. (2014) ‘Prevent and the Internet: Examining the Impact of the Prevent Strategy on Preventative Counter-Terrorism Online’, in C. Baker-Beall, C. Heath-Kelly & L. Jarvis (eds.) Counter-Radicalisation in Europe. Abingdon: Routledge.

Journal Articles

Aly, A. (2017). Brothers, Believers, Brave Mujahideen: Focusing attention on the audience of violent jihadist preachers. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism40(1), 62-76.


Conway, M. (2016). Determining the Role of the Internet in Violent Extremism and Terrorism: Six Suggestions for Progressing Research. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism25.


Gendron, A. (2017). The Call to Jihad: Charismatic Preachers and the Internet. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism40(1), 44-61.


Jarvis, L., Macdonald, S and Whiting, A. (2017) ‘Unpacking cyberterrorism discourse: specificity, status and scale in news media constructions of threat’ European Journal of International Security, 2(1), 64-87


Jarvis, L., Macdonald, S and Whiting, A. (2016) ‘Analogy and authority in cyberterrorism discourse: an analysis of global news media coverage’, Global Society, 30(4), 605-623


Macdonald, S. & Jarvis, L. (2015) ‘Responding to Cyberterrorism: Options and Avenues’, Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Summer (Cyber V), 134-143


Macdonald, S., Jarvis, L. & Nouri, L. (2015) ‘State Cyberterrorism: A Contradiction in Terms?’ Journal of Terrorism Research, 6(3), 62-75 doi:10.15664/jtr.1162


Macdonald, S., Jarvis, L. & Whiting, A. (2015) ‘Constructing Cyberterrorism as a Security Threat: a Study of International News Media Coverage’ Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(1), 60-75 


Mair, D. (2017) #Westgate: A Case Study: How Al-Shabaab used Twitter during an on-going attack.  Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 40(1), pp24-42


Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (2014) ‘What is Cyberterrorism? Findings from a Survey of Researchers’ Terrorism and Political Violence 37(1): 68-90 


Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (2014) ‘Locating Cyberterrorism: How Terrorism Researchers Use and View the Cyber Lexicon’ Perspectives on Terrorism 8(2): 52-65


Jarvis, L., Macdonald, S. & Nouri, L. (2014) ‘The Cyberterrorism Threat: Findings from a Survey of Researchers’ Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(1), 68-90


Rudner, M. (2013) ‘Cyber-Threats to Critical National Infrastructure: An Intelligence Challenge,’ International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 26(3), 453-481 


Rudner, M. (2017). “Electronic Jihad”: The Internet as Al Qaeda’s Catalyst for Global Terror. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism40(1), 10-23.


Cyberterrorism: A Survey of Researchers Five Years On

In 2012 members of the Cyberterrorism Project conducted a survey of researchers on cyberterrorism. A total of 118 responses were received, from researchers working in 24 countries across six continents. The findings were published in a report and series of four journal articles, listed below, examining understandings of cyberterrorism, assessments of the threat it poses, whether it can be perpetrated by states and the wider cyber lexicon.  Members of the project team also presented the findings to numerous non-academic stakeholders, including NATO COE-DAT, UNICRI, and the European Defence Agency.

In 2017 we ran the survey again – “five years on” – to investigate how opinions had changed (if at all): 12 questions remained the same as the 2012 survey; two questions were reformulated; and four new questions were posed.

A total of 120 complete responses and four partial responses were received, from researchers working in 30 countries across five continents. This report summarizes our initial findings.

Extreme Far Right Groups’ Use of Social Media

This report contains findings from a study that investigated extreme far right groups’ usages of social media. This was a collaborative project building on an existing partnership between the Departments of Linguistics and Criminology at Swansea University, and on the development of a new partnership with the social media analytics company ‘Blurrt’. The project was funded by the CHERISH-DE multidisciplinary research centre at Swansea University and the School of Arts & Humanities at Edith Cowan University.

This report provides an overview of the aims, methodology and key findings of this project. The project was conducted between January and August 2017. It drew upon data from two social media platforms (Facebook and Twitter), collected over a 10-week period (January-April 2017), and concerned two extreme far right groups: Britain First and Reclaim Australia.

 Terrorists’ Use of the Internet: Assessment and Response

This report contains findings from the Advanced Research Workshop supported by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme on terrorists’ use of the Internet, held at Dublin City University on 27th-29th June 2016. The event was co-organised by the Cyberterrorism Project and the VOX-POL Network of Excellence. The workshop consisted of a total of 31 presentations, followed by a roundtable discussion during which participants formulated a set of recommendations. 60 delegates attended the symposium, from 13 different countries, including researchers and representatives from NATO HQ, NATO CCD-COE, UNICRI, the European Defence Agency, the Bavarian Police Academy and the Italian Carabinieri.

This report provides summaries of each of the presentations and presents the workshop’s final recommendations.

Online Terrorist Magazine

The Cyberterrorism Project hosted a symposium in Swansea on Wednesday 4th November 2015 with presentations given by Project interns who have recently conducted primary research into online terrorist magazine at the University of Massachusetts Lowell.  The preliminary findings of this research project are available in this report.


Terrorists’ Use of the Internet: Symposium Report

The Cyber Terrorism Project at Swansea University hosted a two day symposium from the 5th June – 6th June 2014, entitled ‘Terrorists’ Use of the Internet’, that saw a range of different experts from across the globe present papers on various different aspects of terrorism online.  Reflecting the international and multi-disciplinary nature of the project speakers came from the UK, Europe, Canada, and Australia and representing a range of different academic backgrounds as well as public bodies, industry and the intelligence community.

A summary of each paper presented at the conference along with our findings is available in the conference report.  In addition to this there is a one page executive summary which summarises the conference findings.


Cyberterrorism and the News Media

This report provides an overview of findings from a research project exploring how mainstream media represent cyberterrorism. This report explores news content produced by 31 news outlets between 1 January 2008 and 8 June 2013. These dates were selected because they cover a significant period of time (over five years), during which a number of key events occurred including: the cyberattacks on Georgia, the Stuxnet revelations, and the release of the UK’s Cyber Security Strategy. Items were added to our corpus using a keyword search for the terms “cyber terrorism”, “cyberterrorism” and “cyber terror”, with a total of 535 items identified for coding and analysis.

To read the full report click here.

A Multidisciplinary Conference on Cyberterrorism - Final Report

The Cyberterrorism Project hosted a multidisciplinary conference on cyberterrorism at Jury’s Inn Hotel, Birmingham, UK on 11-12 April 2013.  Forty-eight delegates attended the conference, including researchers from a number of UK universities as well as institutions in the Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Greece, Australia and the United States. Other attendees included representatives from Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabularies and the Welsh Government.

Subsequent to the conference the project teams has published the following report which presents an overview of each of the papers presented during the conference, and draws out some of the key findings.

The final report can be found here.

A one page executive summary can be found here.


A Global Survey of Experts

A multidisciplinary team of researchers at Swansea University have completed a global survey of expert opinion on cyberterrorism. The survey focused on the concept, significance and appropriate responses to cyberterrorism, as well as exploring researcher views on the current state of academic knowledge on this prominent security issue. The survey drew a total of 118 responses from academics and other researchers working in 24 countries across six continents.

To read the full report click here

Table of Questionnaire Respondents

Prof. Jeffrey F. Addicott, St Mary’s University
Dr. Fahed Al-Sumait, Gulf University of Science and Technology
Dr. Anne Aly, Curtin University
Edwin Bakker, Universiteit Leiden, Campus the Hague
Prof. Sanjay Bapna, Morgan State University
Dr. David Barnard-Wills, Trilateral Research
Dr. Igor Bernik, University of Maribor
Jessie Blackbourn, The University of New South Wales
Dr. Lorraine Bowman-Grieve, University of Lincoln
Dr. Alia Brahimi, London School of Economics
Dr. Oldrich Bures, Metropolitan University, Prague
Dr. Madeline Carr, Aberystwyth University
Dr. Jennifer Varriale Carson, University of Central Missouri
Gordon Clubb, University of Leeds
Dr. Maura Conway, Dublin City University
Dr. Erik J. Dahl, Naval Postgraduate School, CA
Dr. Dorothy Denning, Naval Postgraduate School
Prof. Priya Dixit, Virginia Tech; American University, Washington DC
Dr. Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zurich
James Fitzgerald, Dublin City University
Prof. Shawn Teresa Flanigan, San Diego State University
Nadina Foggetti, University of Bari
Dr. James J. F. Forest, University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Prof. Giampiero Giacomello, Universita di Bologna
Dr. Charlotte Heath-Kelly, Aberystwyth University
Lewis Herrington, University of Warwick
Annette Hübschle-Finch, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
Lawrence A. Husick, Center for the Study of Terrorism
Musa Khan Jalalzai, Author
Dr. Christian Kaunert, University of Salford
Prof. Jeremy Keenan, University of London
Prof. Isaac Kfir, Syracuse University
Dr. Åshild Kolås, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)
Prof. Margaret E. Kosal, Georgia Institute of Technology
Dr. George K. Kostopoulos, University of Maryland University College
Prof. Adam Lankford, University of Alabama
Dr. Peter Lehr, University of St Andrews
Chamila Liyanage, University of London
Prof. James M. Lutz, Indiana University, Purdue University Fort Wayne
Dr. Gus Martin, California State University, Dominguez Hills
Dr. Mark R. McCoy, University of Central Oklahoma
Prof. Richard M. Medina, George Mason University
Dr. John F. Morrison, University of East London
Prof. Doug Munroe, Quest University
Dr. Andrew W. Neal, University of Edinburgh
Dr. Nihat Ali Özcan, Economic Policy Research Foundation of Turkey
Raffaello Pantucci, The International Centre For The Study Of Radicalisation And Political Violence
Dr. Swati Parashar, University of Wollongong
Kaja Prislan, University of Maribor
Ami-Jacques Rapin, Université de Lausanne
Dr. Anthony Richards, University of East London
Dr. Karthika Sasikumar, San José State University
Prof. Mark Sedgwick, Aarhus University
Prof. Jeffrey Sluka, Massey University
Dr. Anne Speckhard, Georgetown University
Dr. Brian H. Spitzberg, San Diego State University
Paul Stott, University of East Anglia
Dr. Ioannis Tellidis, Kyung Hee University
David Vaile, University of New South Wales
James R. Van De Velde, Author
Teun van Dongen, The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies
Dr. Alex A. Wilner, Center for Security Studies, ETH Zurich
Carl Anthony Wege, College of Coastal Georgia
Prof. Robert W. White, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
Dr. Clay Wilson, University of Maryland University College
Kiyana Zolfaghar, University of Washington, Tacoma

An additional 52 respondents chose not to be identified.